The origin of skald's poetry Part 1


"The Central problem in the history poetry. Norn, is the question of the origin of poetry and skalds." This question is still Mullenhoff called "the cardinal and fundamental question stories animal of poetry". The question is, still researchers as follows.

First of all we should mention the theory of the Celtic origin of poetry and skalds. No literary facts in favor of this theory (supported by the German studies, but not catalogue) still are not, except, properties of a General order are typical for poetry for old Irish poetry. Evidence of the presence of between the Scandinavians and the Irish were given many (especially in son and Bugge). However, as at the time rightly pointed out, all these facts belong to the period when the poetry of skalds has developed.

Against the argument of Jonsson could, however, argue that, as research, Scandinavia was not isolated until the Viking era; that in age (V-VIII century) Western Norway had connections not only with the Germanic tribes on the continent (especially the Franks), but Anglo Saxon in Britain; that the Orkney and other Islands was apparently in prehistoric (Norway) time and that, consequently, Norway and the British Isles could exist before the so campaign of Vikings in the West; that, finally, in the early iron age (i.e. BC) there was a connection between the Scandinavian tribes and Central Europe. Could be change without that the Celts were close neighbors of the Germanic tribes in even more.

However, archaeological data hardly constitute a solid ground for literary influences. As you go deeper in the prehistoric era, a border known to us in historical time cultures are erased, and, in particular, is erased in the end and the boundary between Teutons and Celts. If you stay, however, the most reliable archaeological data, i.e. data itself apache licensed and the era directly preceding her, it turns out that not confirmed assumptions about the origin of poetry and skalds under. Irish (metal) products appear in Norway the first of the Vikings (CA. 800), but only in the tenth century is the place ornament in the Norwegian forms, i.e. the assimilation of Irish art.

Norwegian archaeologists have concluded that in the field of burial customs (archaeological material, which characterizes spiritual culture) the Viking age was marked by like a conscious reaction against foreign (Christian) influence, which had taken place earlier and which was to intensify in the Viking age. This spread in Norway the pagan reaction of the Norwegian archaeologists characteristic of the era. Thus, the archaeological data that even before the tenth century the Irish influence could be strong in order to guide local poetic art a new direction.

Contrary to the possibility of "Celtic influence" in prehistoric times the conservatism of the poetry of skalds. Impossible that art, which in historical time, despite the lack of religious barriers, stubbornly resisted the influences of could arise from accidental contact with foreign people of different faiths, though people, who, despite the unique culture, stood at a higher stage of social development than the Nordic tribes.


The latter circumstance is particularly important: they could not be the ground for from the Irish, as the latter lived in a more primitive social dialogue, than the Scandinavians. In the early Viking age in Ireland apparently existed, no cities, no navigation, no trade, no hammered coins, and dominated by subsistence farming. The breeding was almost food, and the clans were still largely nomadic life. It's hardly will be to deny supporters of the "Celtic theory". What casual high culture of the Irish Christian monasteries, it could have a direct impact on the pagan Scandinavians. In fact, the Christianization of Western Scandinavia was carried out only at the end of the Viking age, and teachers of the new religion were there, as we know, not Irish and continental missionaries.

Not surprisingly, there was no doubt available at lip contouring superiority of the Irish in relation to their Scandinavian invaders. Undoubtedly, however, the other namely, Toscanini had a significant impact on Irish culture. That the Celtic loanwords in old Icelandic language (generally negligible) is much smaller than the Scandinavian Irish, and, on the other hand, the Anglo-Saxon, in old Icelandic, a fact which in itself is sufficient theory. Even, the most zealous supporter of the Celtic theory, recognized that in law, Maritime and trade supremacy was all in the side of the Scandinavians. However, the influence of the Scandinavians, probably, was not confined to these areas. If the rights of Zimmer, islands magazine epic bears traces of Scandinavian influence.

Irish influence on Scandinavian heroic epos remains problematic.

It should also be noted that the reference to "the Celtic influence" that on its own did not explain the origin of the poetry of skalds, and in the case of. If it is unclear how this pretentious art, skalds, were able to spread in a barbaric society, the presence of similar artwork in no less barbarous, the Irish society, it would be one explanation for the strange phenomena by reference to another, not. Unlikely to help here indication of the fact that the Celts the people gifted in the poetic attitude due to the fact that misty climate related countries contributes to the development of poetic imagination, etc.

Such guidance, as well as the instructions on the admixture of "Celtic blood" the Icelanders, as the cause of the flourishing of Icelandic literature, hardly need refutation. Apparently, however, that in this kind of prejudice is rooted in "Celtic theory".

Does not solve the problem and the theory put forward by the Swedish historian. According to Moberg, the presence of skalds "of the rings" and "waster of gold" suggests a high economic sector and plenty of gold. Tradition associates the oldest Norwegian skalds, according to Moberg, with the South-West of Norway, where he was subsequently. From the same as show found there Celtic jewelry century, came the first Vikings to the West. Thus, it is South West of Norway in the ninth century supposedly created the material prerequisites.

As Almarsson, Moberg exaggerates the value "waster of gold", etc. in the poetry of skalds, where they are only a king or a warrior. Canvas to argue that this type widely represented outside of in Anglo-Saxon poetry in the Edda songs, etc.