The origin of skald's poetry Part 2


But a more important objection to the theory of Mubenga is that, although his work called "the Origin of the old Norse", in reality it is not explained how poetry, but only an attempt of the geographical skalds, though the attempt is unconvincing. So, for example, ancient skalds and Eastern (Middle Sweden). And mash, and his father in Earp were associated with the East-Scandinavian kings. That in verses Braga meet and that his father's name Boddi. Don't have ancestral ties to Norway with Sweden, a country more rich in power was older than in Norway, and the Royal native was (as is evident from) genealogical related. The absence of a language barrier between Norway and Sweden (skald in its more ancient meaning is found in two Swedish XI century), you have to admit that the Eastern "samples" of the Institute of Royal skalds almost likely Western.

There are two theories on the origin of skaldic poetry. One of nihilistic the poetry of skalds from court etiquette, the other of magic. Both assume the native the origin of poetry and skalds and based indisputable position. However convincing solution to the problem of duty these theories.

The first of these was developed de Fries. The basis of this theory is generally accepted and undisputed position that primordial and basic skaldic genre. But it is indisputable makes controversial conclusions. De Vries argues that "skaldic was not poetry in the strict sense, as we imagine, court etiquette". Thus, in its formal sophistication of poetic content, its conventionality and impersonality. "Says de Vries, not suffering any personal hardship of a poet", Oskolkova "element of courtly etiquette". Therefore, supposedly "the value of songs of praise warmth and sincerity are nested within the poet of feelings, but the exact of the genre rules".

The shortcomings of this theory are obvious. First, she States the facts, but them and, second, it is anti-historical.

It leaves absolutely unclear why in VIII-IX centuries in poetry, which existed in other times and other Nations, have adopted such extremely pretentious and conditional forms. There is absolutely no to assume that the court life and court ceremonial Scandinavia in this era, especially the lush development. On the contrary. All that talk about the earliest Norwegian kings (and the sagas contain many and very detailed, though on the kings of the era somewhat later, when the Royal power and court life has already received more development), suggests that in this era in Scandinavia still remnants characteristic of the highest stage of barbarism "military democracy" (in the terminology of Engels); the position of the king still refused; that the king still stood very close to his squad and to the bonds; the life of the king in many ways was identical to the life; that the very notion of "Tron" was lacking; that did not exist "predominantly" because the culture was unified, and that a luxuriant development of the court is name could not take place. From the sagas it is evident also that carriers of was not the Palace servants and notable independent bonds, and that was by no means servile hangers-on of the king, and held, though probably consecrated by the authority of religion.

High position of the ancient skalds speaks rather in favor of the origin of skaldic poetry. "Magical theory" has the advantage that, in contrast to the dominant modern science, it takes into account the specifics of archaic art. In favor of this will, it would seem, remnants of the magical function of words in the poetry of skalds, as well as some of the formal features of skaldic poetry (about the origin of the magic of poetry and of linguistic taboo).

However, this theory cannot claim to explain poetry in General. It only explains how drawn to the formal elements of his poetry. They reveal the ground on which this. It points to a more archaic stage of development of poetry, with skalds presumably connected. But she can't throw most at this more archaic stage of development of poetry to the works of skalds, can't explain the originality of the poetry of the skalds as a literary phenomenon. The only "magic theory" that purports to explain skaldic poetry in of Hallmarks, which displays all the poetry of the skalds of the taboo on the name of the deceased, is clearly untenable.


Thus, the problem of the origin of poetry and skalds remains unresolved. On the one hand, its foreign origin seem to be unprovable and unbelievable. On the other hand, however, remains unexplained how poetry to occur on native soil, how in preliterate, could be poetry, which, according to common belief, restoration of folklore as poetry "artificial", as pretentious literary masters, flaunting his sophisticated art.

Many researchers have felt the inability to reconcile the poetry of skalds, phenomenon, with the common concept of literary development, "artificiality", a formal sophistication, hypertrophy forms literature, a symptom of the same ancient personal poetry should be, simplicity, closeness to folklore. This view appears to have been ultimately the reason that caused on the one hand, to doubt of skaldic poetry, on the other hand, seek secure utilize between poetry and skalds and more Edda poetry.

The disagreement between theory and facts were encouraged to question the facts or otherwise to eliminate them. There are, however, another way to harmonize theories facts: namely, the revision of the theory.

To approach the poetry of skalds with a preconceived concept of literary would have been because the work of the skalds a certain stage, monuments which, in fact, anywhere except Scandinavia, not representation which can be, therefore, only hypothetical. Is creativity conscious masters, personal poetry, i.e. Narrow sense of the word. However, it is the poetry of the preliterate. Meanwhile, poetry falls into our field of vision only as the creation of a writing era. It is not surprising, therefore, that the apparent typological analogies to still never been found. And it's not because poetry the nature of the game, one of a kind exception, but because a stage of development, which, as a rule, cannot, just as inaccessible to our observation and the process poetry or, in the words, the transition "from singer to poet".

Awareness of the value of individual authorship, contributing to the end scatter meter greater creative freedom in relation to material and creative possibilities perhaps the most important stage in the history.