The origin of skald's poetry Part 3


The consequences that this awareness entails are so large that the compositions lying on the opposite side of the border that separates folklore literature, refer to two fundamentally different areas are objects of two different Sciences. However, in genetic terms, is one of the most dark areas of the total available to the literary critic. This boundary, like the boundary in the sense that this notion in the early middle ages, when the word "frontier" meant dramatizes or a desolate wilderness, dividing the inhabited land.

Naturally, the transition "from singer to poet" impossible to observe in our era, when the awareness of the value of individual authorship and the associated freedoms inherent as a result of cultural influences of modern. On the other hand, the transition to conscious authorship, the ongoing written culture, is simply not a repetition of the path traversed in the time of humanity, just as the introduction to leading culture does not entail a complete duplication of all development. And in that and in other case there is a kind. Not by chance "boundary folk", i.e. folklore, standing on granites literature, which is so abundantly represented in old Norse literature (Edda songs, sagas) and which plays a leading role there, characteristic of modern times.

A little more light on how is the transition "from the singer" shed and medieval literature. They all come to already in the form of written literature arising from the vaccination is higher and an alien culture. All of them more ancient, oral tradition in the assimilation literature and only indirectly reflected later era. In all of them the transition to conscious authorship occurs, apparently, or in the "short circuit", the result ancient and high culture, or somewhere out of our view. In any case, the fundamental anonymity observed in epoch eclipse and much later (in the work of jugglers and minstrels), no doubt already for the middle ages. The transition to conscious authorship, in some poetic genres, could take place much earlier. Her illustrated poetry of skalds.

Skaldic tradition already fully developed in all its elements in the first half of the ninth century, more than three hundred years before in Iceland is a writer of literary works and local literature direct the direct influence of foreign written literature. This steadily continued after the introduction of writing in Iceland two hundred years, extremely slowly decaying under the influence.

Thus, this tradition encompasses at least not less and out of our sight may be much more. The poetry of skalds is a huge epoch in the history of ancient literature, and of literature, because nobody until now did not occur to you to include the poems of the skalds to the folklore.

Thus, this tradition encompasses at least not less and out of our sight may be much more. The poetry of skalds is a huge epoch in the history of ancient literature, and of literature, because nobody until now did not occur to you to include the poems of the skalds to the folklore.

But if the poetry of skalds is literature, therefore the boundary between folklore literature may not coincide with the boundary between the oral and written tradition, or in other words, the existence of a written tradition, "literacy", not characteristics of literature, or otherwise, the use of play a decisive role in the making of literature, for this. The awareness of the value of individual authorship, the recognition of copyright, the transition from "singer to the poet", can take place long before the introduction of writing out of our sight.

However, the extent to which the poetry of skalds is actually literature?

According to the conventional view, the poetry of skalds, not only cannot be folklore, but must be sharply opposed as poetry is purely artificial. This is a common view, however, overlooks that the poetry of the skalds (because Radharani features) not quite literature in the narrow sense of the word.


A common opinion about the skalds ignores, first of all, the fact that although, indeed, the attitude of the skald to his essay is fundamentally different autotoxemia folklore of the author to his work, it also dramatically well - ordinary literary relationship of the author to his work. Externally the attitude of the skald to his creativity finds expression for the whole of the skaldic art of hypertrophy of forms, which the skalds update policy be unacceptable to the artistic tastes of the new time.

As mentioned before, all the efforts of the scald clearly aimed at a sophisticated, which would be independent from the content. Still no that this hypertrophy is the result of a kind of. Skalds, however, undoubtedly are aware of themselves as authors of their works. Fundamental anonymity in the poetry of skalds is not true. Their poems and are proud of their works. Basically, there is copyright, although very primitive. Apparently, they have used sometime and some idea about plagiarism, as is evident from scald the Audun and stolen the light from the Drapes of Ulva Shabbason. However they have only the form, but not substance. Their creative on verbal, external to even relatively independent of it, as it's just more of that the skalds often decorate their verse, the literal meaning corresponds to the content of the verse; often, without irony, the beggar is known as the verse "distributors of wealth" and a coward "God of battle" because of the LTTE and another kenning in the language of the skalds means a person in General.

The poetry of skalds, the way the statement of facts, representing and outside of the realm of their creativity. Skalds can only report the facts, witnesses which they were. The content of their poems is not and predefined reality. In their works it is impossible a trace of fiction. But it's not because they have no. They can't afford of fiction because objects for it, indistinguishable from ordinary lies. Their author's identity is not to the level at which it becomes possible the conscious selection, their synthesis and conversion to artwork. They do not have the right to artistic transformation of facts. Their hands and feet facts of reality. Art pietistic of them in one row with the ability to swim or to ride, or Strelets bow. They are artisans of poetry, they are masters of the form, but they are still not fully.