The origin of skald's poetry Part 4


Inferiority the creative self-consciousness is reflected in style scale, namely in an extremely characteristic desire expression of canning when the absolute immutability of his internal circuitry, enclosed in it the "image". With few exceptions, the scalds. Like folklore, they are accumulated stereotypical poetic schemes. By substituting synonyms they verbal expression of canning, but its contents, enclosed in it the "image" remains absolutely unchanged. Characteristic of folklore and fossil poetic expression turns out to have only partially. And this is a partial overcoming of the fossils of naturally reflected in the relative independence of verbal content, i.e. in hypertrophy of forms.

Thus, in genetic terms, characteristic of the skaldic form is a step towards the development of creative identity. Finds creative identity, realizing himself the author of a poetic form. Hence its hypertrophy, i.e. a relative independence from the content, the type of relationship of the author to his work. Hypertrophy form that's sort of a springboard through which creative consciousness rises above basic material and finds himself, although not yet completely. It remains longer than it usually represent themselves while ignoring the process of literature and its dialectic. Creative consciousness remains until he becomes available conscious fiction. Only then authorship will spread completely on the content. But this is still very far away.

The poetry of skalds that's not quite "literature". If folklorist genres, standing on the periphery of his interests are, in the terminology Ulrika, with the same right, from the point of view of the literary critic, which is a more archaic stage of development than narrow sense, it would be possible to introduce the term "boundary literature". This is the poetry of skalds.

Awareness of form, and therefore and awareness of formal skill, of course, to have a place in poetry, not in prose, because in poetry tangible. In this sense, poetry as a conscious nitrate must be ancient prose. Not by chance we don't hear anything about scalds to the prose writers. But in poetry, not all genres are equally awareness of formal skills.

The primordial and basic genre of poetry of the scalds it is certainly a song of praise work which aims to put the writer in to glorify and content of which are, as a rule, actualizes of the present facts. If not all, attributed to the skalds, amnestic this genre, in any case, all attributed to them are always written any specific reason to a specific case, and anyway writer to his contemporaries. In contrast, epic poetry narrative of ancient events, flooding is usually not relevant, but is of universal interest, are most certainly not goes in the field of skaldic art. Even if you assume, as is sometimes done, that the skalds were the authors known to us epic songs, certain that the tradition is in any case not acknowledged their that the epic poetry of conscious authorship did not apply. It is significant that only in the twelfth century, when writing was spread recording literary works and in skaldic poetry new trend that led eventually to its degradation, skaldic poems about ancient heroes and ancient events.

An ode is a work, stylistic form which, because of the frequency of occurrence of the cause for canonization may be highly traditional, while the content of his or, in any case, the individual, in its content, is determined by the specific data that needs. Form songs of praise is like a blank, substituted individual data name glorified, his origin, performed military exploits, his acts of generosity, etc. Of course, that it in this genre where the form in the context of changing individual data would have some autonomy, can happen the awareness of form as such, and this can hypertrophy. And since this form, with all its traditionalism, yet need for every songs of praise to be played again, it is natural that the conditions here are particularly favorable for the realization of individual investors, i.e. formal skill.


A song of praise is not the only genre in which there is awareness form, and hence authorship. Similar conditions are evident primarily in a work whose purpose is not the glorification, but on the contrary. These two are the most typical for poetry of are a kind of the same size, taken with. For both of these genres are characterized by the absence of traditional plot scheme. The content given in them is not a tradition, and events. In both of these genres potatoes scope for improvisation within traditional forms.

In this respect a complete analogy is modern folk (lamentations) genetically linked to the funeral a song of praise. Not coincidentally, the lamentation is the modern folk genre, unto which unique start most affected in increasingly applied improvisation. Which still was not used to explain poetry, is so significant a confirmation. Although, as mentioned above, the development of the author's consciousness in folklore may not be an exact repetition of the process that led WSS time to the occurrence of deliberate literary authorship and personal poetry, we can still observe in these media, the action tendencies similar to those which determined the process of formation of the literature.

Characteristic for the poetry of skalds hypertrophy form is not meant the separation. On the contrary, the poetry of skalds were contemporaries something blue series and up to date than could ever be poetry later skalds were significantly different from the functions of literature in words. On the one hand, she believed never believed poetry in, because, owing to the inferiority of authorship, it could not contain actual facts and fiction in her would be tantamount to just lie would not go. On the other hand, it was still very strong function words is stronger than in epic poetry. However, was strong in the poetry of skalds, not because, of course, that skaldic more archaic epic, but only because skaldic genres, i.e. genres most favorable to highlight the author's, was at the same time genres with targeted, practical installation, i.e. genres, in function words was inevitable, just more to make itself felt.

But so is the poetry of has not only lost its relevance, which she was bound to lose, when lost relevance her facts, but ceased to be felt as poetry, becoming exclusively materialists linguistic and technological research. Attempts to "rehabilitate" the poetry of skalds, to make it acceptable to modern taste, and some other interpreters, with no success. Poetry scale down be rethinking modern consciousness. Hypertrophy form role as a springboard by which the authorship has achieved recognition. But as soon as the author has gained recognition in the area of content as arise literature in the proper sense of the word, loses its meaning. Springboard has been thrown.