The origin of skald's poetry Part 5


On the contrary, the dialectics of the development of literature, Edda songs, i.e. "boundary folk", is closer to the modern mind than the poetry of skalds, i.e. "boundary literature". In the Edda poetry, as in epic poetry in General, there were no conditions for the relative autonomy of the forms and for the awareness of formal parameters. As mentioned before, in Edda songs form hardly as such. These songs were of interest because of their content, because of the universal significance in a tragic collision. However, these conflicts had a reputation more for the story than for the art. But tradition was subjected to considerable processing, i.e. elements of fiction, i.e. true in the content area. Hence their acceptability to the modern mind. However, the tradition acknowledged authorship only in form but not. The recognition of authorship in the content area refers to a much era. In old Norse literature it has not taken place at all.

The above should not, of course, that the creation of literary forms precedes content creation. On the contrary, skaldic extraordinary conservatism of its form, which with such work was at the end conclusion new content, is one of the most visible illustrate the undisputed position that in the dialectic literary development belongs to content. However, this dialectic does not exclude the fact, the concept of "form" and "content" are at a certain point is fact that from a modern point of view, is undoubtedly the "form" was the poetry of skalds, in a sense, its "contents"; what with of view, is undoubtedly "content" was in the poetry of skalds than township in relation to its essence, its "form". For the same the concept of "form" and "content", which of course are, did not exist.

Thus, the formal sophistication of the poetry of skalds, the phenomenon is archaic. It is the first step on the path of creative liberation of the author.

From this point of view find their place in the process of literary development literary currents, marked by the hypertrophy of forms. Literature tend to view the poetry of skalds kind of Baroque or even decadent poetry, thus placing the sign Ravensthorpe modernity and the early middle ages. However, the similarity it has the meaning. All hypertrophy involves defective forms of authorship. But while in the era of the formation of literature it is the result of incomplete impersonal tradition, incomplete inertia overcome archaic thinking, in an era of ideological collapse of the hypertrophy of forms becomes limit the areas of creativity, artificial diluting the content. What was at one time a step on the path of creative liberation, because turns into its opposite. Hypertrophy forms creative decline, a phenomenon of atavism, a return to the long obsolete.

The above theory of the Genesis of personal poetry based on the analysis of the country. The process of the emergence of personal poetry naturally could data from other literatures because, as already mentioned, the transition "from poet" occurs, as a rule, out of our view. It is likely, however, that in those ancient literatures, the initial stage of development which is unknown to us, was a process similar to that described above, but leaving no trace in mismanagement. No trace would be left from the poetry of the ancient, if our information about the ancient Norwegian literature that have been preserved from it in Norway (i.e. only the monuments of that arose in XII-XIII centuries under the influence of European feudal culture), and if the archaic art of the scalds was not preserved until written Iceland, due to the special conditions that have taken place there.


Although, therefore, the above theory is not based on, by itself it allows me to rethink the phenomenon. In the present work, however, some attempts in this go on a brief concluding comments.

From the point of view of set theory repeatedly noted the similarity skalds and poetry of the ancient Irish personal poets is typological. In fact, the similarity is not less more than could be the case for similar development in conditions. It is in any case not comes in private moments before the match, which would make necessary the assumption of a direct influence. But on the other hand, it is in the General points far enough of the supposition made above about the Genesis of personal poetry.

Irish civilization, ancient Scandinavian. Its origins lie far in preliterate era. Its ancient history is intertwined with the myth. Poetry all in the mythical era. Personal ancient Irish poets characters. Therefore, old Irish literature does not give such a clear cut picture poetry, as old Norse literature.

Yet the following highlights show through quite clearly.

Ancient Irish personal poetry is characterized by the fact that the above has been authorship. It is dominated by non-generic reality, i.e. the material of historical, genealogical, topographical, legal it. D. there is no poetic fiction. It is full of names and facts, devoid of General interest. Typical in this respect are, for instance, poems published by Kuno Meyer in 1913. Tradition attributed this poem that Mayer dates back to the beginning of the seventh century. As right, it doesn't matter in this regard. But the fact that an ancient tradition "attributed" these poems someone suggests that poetry of this kind was recognized as the copyright, that she was technologies.