The origin of skald's poetry Part 7


All these barbaric manifestations of hypertrophy forms were natural authorship, it is inevitable that an archaic personal poetry.

According to the assumption, similarities cultures old Irish old Norse effect relations prevailing in the Viking age between Scandinavia Ireland. However, a much more plausible seems to be the opposite: ties between Scandinavians and Irish in the Viking age (the difference in language) a consequence of the significant similarities between this era cultures.

Thus, it is not similarity effect, as it seems the surface consideration of the phenomena, but on the contrary, the effect is the result of the similarities, as it follows from the fact the social aspects of literary phenomena.

But needless to say, the resemblance is not excluded, and significant differences of which, from the point of view of the theory of literary development the most something important great stagnation of Irish culture compared with Scandinavian.

No matter how conservative was the skaldic tradition of Irish poetry more conservative. The archaic literary forms becoming obsolete in slower than in Iceland. Irish bards of the XVI and XVII centuries in mega program ancient tradition: preserved old poetic technique, bards, etc. Apparently it is due to stagnation of Irish developed a rigid division into classes of poets, the poetic presence of ranks, consolidation of certain forms for certain classes, and similar phenomena in Scandinavia cannot be detected.

In no other European literature has not provided stage of development similar to the poetry of skalds. In particular, the Greek and the lyrics represented a higher stage of development. Maybe the analogy to poetry to be found in the East. However, the lack of any in this area and the inaccessibility of material for the layman to the most common reasons.

The analogy with the poetry of skalds probably you would expect in poetry, i.e. poetry, which, like skaldic, there Navassa stage of the tribal system, in society, save in its order the number hell. However, the nomadic tribes of Bedouins, among poetry existed, has not escaped the impact of the more ancient cultures, foci of Arabian city. The preserved pre-Islamic poetry has behind it a significantly longer history than the poetry of skalds. However, there is reason to believe that the works of pre-Islamic poets, time in the oral tradition is unlikely to have been recorded Muslim centuries in the exact form in which they were composed.

Nevertheless, striking similarities between pre-Islamic and the poetry of skalds.

Like the skalds, the pre-Islamic Arab poets held high and honorable location and apparently to a lesser degree, were professionals. The poet usually been together with the warrior. The most famous of the ancient Arab poets, whose has, was descended from the Royal family and life to revenge for his father and fight for his father's legacy.

Itself shows its Arabic designation, the poet was credited with the possession of supernatural magical knowledge. It was believed that he was directly inspired by the Jinn. He was the Oracle. It poetry, as well as skaldic, power. They were an equally important element of the war than. Their performance was accompanied by a special symbolic ceremonies, ritual.


Power attributed to the panegyric that was the most important elements array pagan poetry. It is curious, in particular, that in stories about poets found Parallels to the Icelandic poetic stories about the "ransom for the head". So, the famous poet Nabigha, like the skald Ottar the Black, a poem dedicated to the Queen, he incurred the disfavor of the king. He to run and only later regained the position of king, him a great. "Price" is in fact the famous panegyrics honor of Muhammad (according to his first words So-called Banat ad), penned ibn Zuhair, who were hostile against the new religion. The Eulogy this made such an impression on Muhammad (which attitude to pagan poetry) that he gave the poet a cloak with.

Like skaldic art, writing poetry was widely Arabs, while this essay has largely been (or have known) always had a very specific reason. Poetry, says Brockelman, "not by separate the elect minds. In every Arab tribe, together with the most important events of its history, even if they were, from our point of view, was completely insignificant skirmishes, lived countless poems that explained the separate phases of this story. It was mainly improvisation". This kind of poetry flourished among the Arabs and in the subsequent epochs.

Like the skalds, the pagan Arab poets combine characteristic of the society in which the bloody tribal custom the center of attention, with the sophistication of the form. Hypertrophy forms in assessments and critics who always give the perfection of form, metrical and verbal art. It is curious, however, that like the skaldic, Arab acetaldehydes skill and content with the extreme primitiveness of the composition, like a combination of "strung pearls".

As the poetry of skalds seemed to many European literary phenomenon unnatural, so aroused the wonder and ancient Arabic poetry. "In these wild, websites dangers and predatory life of the children of the desert, not urban residents, says Shaq, poetry found its home; and miraculously it was she development, which for refined grace of language and metric was not surpassed in any era". And further: "on the one hand, savage barbaric era, and revenge; on the other the complexity of your speech, pretentious elegance of expression, as if the poem was written to illustrate the chapters of a grammar. Was possible that restlessly prowling soldiers who daily barren soil and the swords of the enemy, was paid to the technical side of poetry, which is usually characteristic of only the very best cultural eras? This phenomenon is no exception in world literature."

K. Burdach, referring to the fact that the identity of the pre-Islamic Arabic poetry Goethe says about these words of Shaq: "I, from the point of view of make out, the only valid conclusion: this phenomenon, which is contrary to all our experience in the field of the history of poetry, may not really exist". Burdah want to say that the pre-Islamic could be distinctive and therefore had to be a continuation breakaway, Hellenistic or other cultural traditions. Absolutely forced S. Bugge and others to doubt the identity or skaldic poetry.

However, in the light of this work it is obvious that the phenomenon in question, not unnatural, but rather completely natural.