The origin of skald's poetry Part 8


Eastern Icelandic Parallels installed repeatedly. However, such Parallels always concerned only separate motifs or Edda poetry or sagas, and never extended to the poetry of skalds. Meanwhile, apparently, the more stable literature of the East retained the old forms than Western literature. Therefore, at a higher stage of social Eastern poetry of the middle ages is easier to detect similarities with than in medieval poetry of the West. So, the similarity with the poetry small domain to detect, for example, in the poetry of Iran X-XIV centuries. But the resemblance is not, or scenes, and structural properties of poetry itself, in the nature of the genre, the basic formal principles in public functions poetry.

The leading genre of the poetry of the Icelandic skalds drape, a leading genre of Iranian poetry and drape on the content of the customary Eulogy, glorification of the ruler, his deeds, his generosity, etc. because of this and drape often topical-political, as if performing the function of in the press, while at the same time the "high" poetry.

However, the defining characteristic of the genre, and here and there still not content, a form and drab in compared literatures most complex and "big" form, i.e. form, requires the highest art, bordered in terms of composition, meter, rhyme, etc.

And drape the genres in which pretentiousness and intricacy reach, and the extreme conventionality and conservatism combine in these genres novelty of expression. And drape the number of valid that is fixed as well as meter and rhyme, is multiplied by formal elements in various combinations. One of is the similarity between the Hattatal, Snorri Sturluson and the Civilisatrice that like Hattatal, verse poetics, rhetorical techniques, and Eulogy. The coincidence in the volume of these poems one hundred and one visa in Hattatal and one hundred and two in the by KIV, of course. It would be no wonder, however, if found a match and phraseology or terminology.

Coincidences could be detected in the biographies of the poets, as shown activate the social function of poetry, the relation of the poet to his customer and patron the king, the Earl, Shah or Sultan. It is also characteristic that here and there a lot was given to the personal ability of the poet to improvise the verses. Represent, the Iranian, who also was tradition for improvisation. Anecdotes of the poets collected, illustrate the role of improvisation in Iranian personal poetry.

However, Icelandic and Iranian poetry has developed in significantly different social dialogue. In Iran of that era the elements of feudalism combined with slavery and, perhaps, vestiges of a more archaic system, but, unlike Scandinavians of the middle ages, there already existed a town with a population of hundreds and centralized state with a large bureaucracy. That the poetry of the skalds still much more archaic Iranian.

Has so far been the extent of professional and official. He is much more independent. However, his kenning blue train and conventional than rhetorical figures of Iranian poets and are drawn narrow thematic range. In his Drapes there is no philosophical the love theme is common to many Iranian. Finally, it is still not, while medieval Iranian poets have book learning.

But in the East, because of the stagnation of their social life, forms are very tenacious. In fact, the barbaric forms of hypertrophy, for panegyric poetry continues to live and what to thus explaining national characteristics of the literary phenomenon with social roots "Eastern ornateness" in a broad sense.

In the West the General line of development of literature was different. There is already in skaldic poetry, like the leading direction in the literature. However, individual elements of skaldic relationships to form and to find in Western medieval art.

Not a case of structural similarity of the skaldic kenning with an allegory a tactic of medieval art.

Parallels to skaldic to the word is the use of words, the medieval "verbalism", which indicates M. Ellen. In contrast to the modern poet, "he says", which seeks to free the word from its functions of ideographs to return him to his primitive imagery, the writers of the middle ages to all the ideographs which the word was said. Addiction to allegorical (in a sense, ideographic) method of expression is formalist, tendencies to hypertrophy of forms, to the separation content, its relative independence.


Elements of skaldic relationship to artistic creation is only apparent, perhaps, in medieval visual arts, in which archaic permissibility was slower than in the literature. In it, in virtue of the absolute Church tradition, the work could not be spread for maintenance.

It is here characteristic of this art is the predominance of elements of elements of tradition and impersonal over the world individual experiences. This is a line of medieval visual arts and perceived as a direct "sense of style". A striking example of such medieval iconography of the classic period.

Elements of skaldic relation to the form and content evident. What could be called "historicism", medieval literature i.e. the predominance of the former over her historically false, the validity in the form of a more or less unconscious of the fraud, the inability to separate from the truth of art are a manifestation defective, on the other hand, the functional syncretism. Fiction that penetrates to the literature in a primitive form fantastic fiction elicitations allegories, and only gradually gets his recognition as method in mainstream genres.

Passivity in relation to the content, combined with personal authorship hypertrophy of the form, its relative independence. Historical or didactic works, the content medieval view has not changed from what was set out poems, with the exception that the latter was "beautiful", not Magna to be a formalist.

It is essential that, though of course in a later era might have best overture prosaic material, in the middle ages such literary production animal have much more pride of place, largely felt than in the later era. Literary historians usually ignore this important fact, regarding this kind of literary production, as not representing the artistic value of richly rhymed prose. This production, however, sheds light on the process of becoming literature.

The tendency to hypertrophy forms were manifested, among other things, in the passion writers for alliteration, play on words and the like in serious works. Manifestation it was also formalistically and metric tour de force, favorite, for example, in medieval Latin clips. In some cases, medieval formalistic tricks skaldic. The Honorable Troubles found so, i.e. separation of adjacent parts of speech in other words, figure, the skalds led to the confusion of commentators. The presence in and Alcuin indicates.